Type : waveform generation
References : Posted by Magnus Jonsson
Linked file : synthesis001.txt
(this linked file is included below)
alias-free waveform generation with analog filtering
Ok, here is how I did it. I'm not 100% sure that everything is correct.
I'll demonstrate it on a square wave instead, although i havent tried it.
The impulse response of an analog pole is:
r(t) = exp(p*x) if t >= 0,
0 if t < 0
notice that if we know r(t) we can get r(t+1) = r(t)*exp(p).
You all know what the waveform looks like. It's a constant -1
followed by constant 1 followed by .....
We need to convolve the impulse response with the waveform and sample it at discrete intervals.
What if we assume that we already know the result of the last sample?
Then we can "move" the previous result backwards by multiplying it with exp(p) since
r(t+1) = r(t)*exp(p)
Now the problem is reduced to integrate only between the last sample and the current sample, and add that to the result.
result *= exp(pole);
phase += freq;
result += integrate(waveform(phase-freq*t), exp(t*pole), t=0..1);
integrate(square(phase-freq*t), exp(t*pole), t=0..1)
The square is constant except for when it changes sign.
Let's find out what you get if you integrate a constant multiplied with
integrate(k*exp(t*pole)) = k*exp(t*pole)/pole
k = square(phase-freq*t)
and with t from 0 to 1, that becomes
k*exp(pole)/pole-k/pole = (exp(pole)-1)*k/pole
the only problem left to solve now is the jumps from +1 to -1 and vice versa.
you first calculate (exp(pole)-1)*k/pole like you'd normally do
then you detect if phase goes beyond 0.5 or 1. If so, find out exactly
where between the samples this change takes place.
subtract integrate(-2*exp(t*pole), t=0..place) from the result to
undo the error
Since I am terribly bad at explaining things, this is probably just a mess to you :)
Here's the (unoptimised) code to do this with a saw:
note that sum and pole are complex.
sum *= exp(pole);
phase += freq;
sum += (exp(pole)*((phase-freq)*pole+freq)-(phase*pole+freq))/pole;
if (phase >= 0.5)
float x = (phase-0.5)/freq;
sum -= exp(pole*x)-1.0f;
phase -= 1;
There's big speedup potential in this i think.
Since the filtering is done "before" sampling,
aliasing is reduced, as a free bonus. with high cutoff
and high frequencies it's still audible though, but
much less than without the filter.
If aliasing is handled in some other way,
a digital filter will sound just as well, that's what i think.
-- Magnus Jonsson <firstname.lastname@example.org>